1. For a deductive argument: 
The premises must establish the conclusion
without question, but the premises need not be true.
The premises must be true,
but they can leave some uncertainty in the conclusion.
The premises must lead to the conclusion
without question and they must be true.
Skip this question.

2. For a valid argument: 
The premises must establish the conclusion
without question, but the premises need not be true.
The premises must be true,
but they can leave some uncertainty in the conclusion.
The premises must lead to the conclusion
without question and they must be true.
Skip this question.

3. For a sound argument: 
The premises must establish the conclusion
without question, but the premises need not be true.
The premises must be true,
but they can leave some uncertainty in the conclusion.
The premises must deductively lead to the conclusion
and they must be true.
Skip this question.

4. For an argument to establish the truthfulness of the conclusion: 
The premises must establish the conclusion
without question, but the premises need not be true.
The premises must be true,
but they can leave some uncertainty in the conclusion.
The premises must deductively lead to the conclusion
and they must be true.
Skip this question.

Argument number one: 
P1  If all matter is made of one or more elements, then paper is made from elements. 
P2  Paper is made from elements. 
C  All matter is made of one or more elements. 
5. Does argument number one establish the truthfulness of the conclusion? 
Yes.
No.
Skip this question.

Preface to argument number two: 
In 1926 a debate began between Einstein, who promoted the local reality
theory, and Bohr, who promoted the quantum theory. In 1964 John Bell developed
Bell's theorem that shows a difference between the two points of view. Bell's
theorem established that a variable called F would have values between 2 and 2
using the local reality theory, but values outside of this range would be
possible if the quantum theory was correct. Experiments to determine F began
in the 1970's. A representative experiment took place in 1982. The quantum
theory predicted F = 2.70 (not in the limits of the local reality theory). The
experimental results found F to be between 2.682 and 2.712. All experiments
have verified the quantum theory in a similar manner.
Assuming everything in the paragraph above is true, consider the following
argument (argument number two): 
P1  If F was found to be greater than 2,
then Einstein was wrong about the local reality theory. 
P2  F was found to be greater than 2. 
C  Einstein was wrong about the local reality theory. 
6. Does argument number two establish the truthfulness of the conclusion? 
Yes.
No.
Skip this question.

Argument number three: 
P1  If electrons orbit around the nucleus like planets around the sun, then atoms have a large nucleus with small electrons outside of the nucleus. 
P2  Electrons orbit around the nucleus like planets around the sun. 
C  Atoms have a large nucleus with small electrons outside of the nucleus. 
7. Is argument number three valid? 
Yes.
No.
Skip this question.

8. Are the premises in argument number three true? 
Yes.
No.
Skip this question.

9. Does argument number three establish the truthfulness of the conclusion? 
Yes.
No.
Skip this question.

10. Is argument number three a sound argument? 
Yes.
No.
Skip this question.
